How To TIG Weld Stainless Steel (Some Tips and Tricks)

TIG stands for Tungsten Inert Gas which is a welding technique done with the help of tungsten electrode for heating different metals. The Tig option can be deployed for doing the stainless steel welding task. It can also perform vigorously well for the other metals such as standard steel, nickel alloys, aluminum, bronze, brass, copper, chromoly and even gold.

Stainless steel is a steel alloy that contains chromium–which gives the metal that shine that it is prized for.  Also, stainless steel does not rust or corrode as easily as carbon steel, another property which makes it a popular metal for many TIG welding applications from industrial equipment, food processing, aerospace, and automotive. Stainless can be tricky to weld, but as with most TIG Welding applications, a lot of practice, attention to details and procedure, will have you welding like a pro in no time.

First, you’ll want to watch your heat.  Basic rule of thumb is that you’ll need 1 amp of welding current for every thousandth of an inch of material thickness.  You’ll also want to keep your weld speed up, and maintain good gas coverage.

Second, the molten stainless steel of the weld pool is so reactive to air that you need to exclude the atmosphere from the back of the weld. So as well as the supply of Argon gas from the torch which the welding machine provides, you need to have a pipeline rigged-up which supplies a blanket of Argon along the back of the weld.

Third, you need to select the polarity as well. The user requires playing with the settings in order to setup the unit for performing different jobs on different materials. If aluminum material is to be dealt with then you must bring the polarity at the AC setting. For TIG welding stainless steel, you got to put the polarity setting at the DC Electrode Negative setting which is also given by DCEN.

Fourth, you have to make sure while grinding that you are doing it in the radial direction which is just around the circumference of the Tungsten and it shouldn’t be by the ends in any means. Use the balled tip for AC welding. On the other side for the DC purposes, it should pointed tip. If you are required to produce a butt weld or perhaps an open corner weld then make sure that you ground the tungsten to be of around 5 to 6 mm stick. The gas for the procedure can either be pure Argon or it can be a mixture of Helium-Argon has.

You’ll hear us repeat this often:  use a gas lens!  The gas lens collet body replaces the standard collet body in your TIG torch. It is comprised of a series of layered screens engineered to distribute the gas (generally argon) over the weld zone in a more coherent fashion for better coverage with less turbulence.

BUY QUALITY STAINLESS STEEL TIG RODS AND TIG TROCH WITH PARTS

 

ER309L Welding Material Data Sheet


Class: ER309/ER309L

AWS: A5.9

Conforms to Certification: AWS A5.9              ASME SFA A5.9

Weld Process Used for Tig (GTAW)

AWS Chemical Composition Requirements
C = 0.12 max
Cr = 23.0 – 25.0
Ni = 12.0 – 14.0
Mo = 0.75 max
Mn = 1.0 – 2.5
Si = 0.30 – 0.65
P = 0.03 max
S = 0.03 max
Cu = 0.75 max

Available Sizes
.030 x 36
.035 x 36
.045 x 36
1/16 x 36
3/32 x 36
1/8 x 36

Application
ER309 is used for the welding of similar alloys in wrought or cast form. It is mostly used for welding dissimilar materials such as mild steel to stainless steel, as well as for a barrier layer in stainless overlays. For some applications, welding of straight chromium steels can be accomplished with this consumable.

Deposited Chemical Composition % (Typical)
C = 0.06 Mo = 0.25 P = 0.018
Cr = 23.50 Mn = 1.80 S = 0.015
Ni = 13.0 Si = 0.40 Cu = 0.20

 

Mechanical Properties (R.T.)
Yield Strength 57,000 psi
Tensile Strength 86,000 psi
Elongation 47%
Reduction of Area 68%

Deposited All Weld Metal Properties
Data is typical for ER309 weld metal deposited by Tig using 100% Argon as the shielding gas.

Recommended Welding Parameters
GTAW “Tig Process”
Wire Diameter Amps DCSP Volts Shielding Gas
.035 60-90 12-15 Argon 100%
.045 80-110 13-16 Argon 100%
1/16 90-130 14-16 Argon 100%
3/32 120-175 15-20 Argon 100%

Note: Parameters for tig welding are dependent upon plate thickness and welding position.
Other shielding Gases may be used for Tig welding. Shielding gases are chosen taking Quality, Cost, and Operability into consideration.

When should I use ER308L, ER309L, ER316L or ER347 filler metal?

ER308L (including ER308LSi) is predominately used on austenitic stainless steels, such as types 301, 302, 304, 305 and cast alloys CF-8 and CF-3. For high temperature applications such as in the electrical power industry, the high carbon 308H electrode provides better creep resistance than does 308L.

ER316L (including ER316LSi) filler metal should be used with ER316L and ER316 base metals. CF-8M and CF-3M are the cast equivalents of 316 and 316L, respectively.

Use ER309L (including ER309LSi) when joining mild steel or low alloy steel to stainless steels, for joining dissimilar stainless steels such as 409 to itself or to ER304L stainless, as well as for joining 309 base metal. CG-12 is the cast equivalent of 309. Some ER308L applications may be substituted with ER309L filler metal, but ER316L or ER316 applications generally require molybdenum and 309L contains no molybdenum.

Type ER347 stainless steel filler metal is ideal for ER347 and ER321 base materials because it matches these stabilized grades. CF-8C is the cast equivalent of ER347. Type ER347 filler metal is also suitable most ER308L filler metal applications.

ER308L – Stainless Steel TIG Welding Rods


ER308L – Stainless Steel TIG Welding Rods

Class: ER308L    AWS: A5.9

Conforms to Certification: AWS A5.9    ASME SFA A5.9

Weld Process Used for Tig (GTAW)

AWS Chemical Composition Requirements
C = 0.03 max
Cr = 19.5 – 22.0
Ni = 9.0 – 11.0
Mo = 0.75 max
Mn = 1.0 – 2.5
Si = 0.30 – 0.65
P = 0.03 max
S = 0.03 max
Cu = 0.75 max

Available Sizes
.030 x 36
.035 x 36
.045 x 36
1/16 x 36
3/32 x 36
1/8 x 36
3/16 x 36
5/32 x 36

Application
ER308L has the same analysis as type 308 except the carbon content has been held to a maximum of .03% to reduce the possibility of intergranular carbide precipitation. ER308L is ideal for welding Types 304L, 321, and 347 stainless steels. This is a suitable wire for applications at cryogenic temperatures.

 

Deposited Chemical Composition % (Typical)
C = 0.02 Si = 0.32 Mn = 1.70
P = 0.011 S = 0.009 Cr = 20.0
Ni = 10

 

Mechanical Properties (R.T.) 
Yield Strength 57,000 psi
Tensile Strength 87,000 psi
Elongation 34%
Reduction of Area 56%

Deposited All Weld Metal Properties
Data is typical for ER308L weld metal deposited by Tig using 100% Argon as the shielding gas.

 

Recommended Welding Parameters
GTAW “Tig Process”
Wire Diameter Amps DCSP Volts Shielding Gas
.035 60-90 12-15 Argon 100%
.045 80-110 13-16 Argon 100%
1/16 90-130 14-16 Argon 100%
3/32 120-175 15-20 Argon 100%

Note: Parameters for tig welding are dependent upon plate thickness and welding position.
Other shielding Gases may be used for Tig welding. Shielding gases are chosen taking Quality, Cost, and Operability into consideration.